Voting Rights for Ex-Offenders by State

(updated June, 2020). In all but two states, voting-age citizens convicted of a felony are barred from voting for some period of time. Laws vary in each state. While many states restore voting rights to individuals automatically after they exit jail or prison, others continue the bar on voting even while on probation or parole. Some even permanently disenfranchise people with a past conviction or require they petition the government to have their right restored.

This is an up-to-date state guide to voting for people with past felonies. 

State Overview

Voting rights retained while in prison for a felony conviction in:

Maine and Vermont.

Voting rights restored automatically upon release from prison in:

Colorado, District of Columbia, Hawaii, Illinois, Indiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Montana, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Nevada, North Dakota, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Utah.

Voting rights restored automatically once released from prison and discharged from parole (probationers can vote) in:

California and Connecticut

Voting rights restored automatically upon completion of sentence, including prison, parole, and probation in:

Alaska,  Arkansas, Georgia, Idaho, Kansas, Louisiana, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska,  Nevada, New Mexico, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, Washington, West Virginia, and Wisconsin. Virginia also does this under the policy of the current governor.

Voting rights  restoration can depend on the date or type of conviction, repayment of fines, the outcome of an individual petition to the government, or gubenatorial pardon in:

 Alabama,  Arizona, Florida, Delaware, Iowa, Kentucky, Mississippi, Tennessee, and Wyoming. 

State by State

A | C | D | F | G | H | I | K | L | M | N | O | P | R | S | T | U | V | W

Alabama

Individuals convicted of a felony are still eligible to vote unless they are convicted of a certain class of felony charges — “crimes moral turpitude” — who are ineligible to vote while in prison, on parole, or on probation. Voting rights restoration is dependent on the type of conviction: some individuals may apply to have their voting rights restored immediately after completing their full sentence, but those convicted of certain felony offenses–such as murder, rape, incest, sexual crimes against children, and treason–are not eligible for re-enfranchisement. However, if convicted of a felony that is not on the list of “moral turpitude”, the individual does not lose their right to vote.
Contact the Alabama Board of Pardons and Paroles at 334-242-8700 for more information.

Alaska

Individuals convicted of certain types of certain felonies – Arson (1st or 2nd Degree), Assault (1st, 2nd, or 3rd Degree), Bribery, or Burglary (1st or 2nd Degree) are ineligible to vote while in prison, on parole, or on probation. Their voting rights are automatically restored upon completion of all supervised release. Anyone else with any other type of conviction or awaiting trial can register and vote whether they are in our out of prison. Check if your conviction is not on the list at Restore Your Vote.

Arizona

Individuals convicted of a felony are ineligible to vote while in prison, on parole, or on probation. If convicted of only one felony, voting rights are automatically restored upon completion of all supervised release and also without obligation to pay fines or restitution. However, if convicted of two or more felonies, the right to vote can only be restored through a judge or if pardoned. Ex-offenders should re-register to vote.

Arkansas

Individuals convicted of a felony are ineligible to vote while in prison, on parole, or on probation. Voting rights are automatically restored upon completion of all supervised release. Ex-offenders should re-register to vote.

California

Individuals convicted of a felony are ineligible to vote while in prison and on parole. Voting rights are automatically restored upon release from prison. People on probation can vote. Ex-offenders should re-register to vote.

Colorado

Individuals convicted of a felony are ineligible to vote while in prison. Voting rights are automatically restored upon release from prison. People on probation can vote. Ex-offenders should re-register to vote.

Connecticut

Individuals convicted of a felony are ineligible to vote while in prison and on parole. Voting rights are automatically restored upon completion of parole and payment of fines. People on probation can vote. Ex-offenders should re-register to vote.

Delaware

Individuals convicted of a felony are ineligible to vote while in prison, on parole, or on probation. Most ex-offenders can regain the right to vote immediately after completion of their full sentence.  Except for people convicted of certain felonies–including murder, manslaughter, bribery or public corruption, and sex offenses are barred from voting unless they receive a formal pardon from the governor. As of July 2016, it is not necessary to have paid all fines, fees, and restitution in order to register.

District of Columbia

Individuals in prison for a felony conviction are ineligible to vote. Voting rights are automatically restored upon release from prison. People on parole or probation can vote. Ex-offenders should re-register to vote.

Florida

Individuals convicted of a felony now regain their right to vote upon completion of their sentence – including prison, parole, or probation.  It may also required repayment of resitution of fines.  People convicted of a sex offense or murder are permanently not allowed to vote unless granted a pardon to do so.

If you have questions about whether you must repay fines, use the Restore Your Vote tool of the Campaign Legal Center to check your eligibility and get help. Or contact a lawyer or person locally for assistance.

Georgia

Individuals convicted of a felony are ineligible to vote while in prison, on parole, or on probation. Voting rights are automatically restored upon completion of all supervised release. Ex-offenders should re-register to vote.

Hawaii

Individuals in prison for a felony conviction are ineligible to vote. Voting rights are automatically restored upon release from prison. People on parole or probation can vote. Ex-offenders should re-register to vote.

Idaho

Individuals convicted of a felony are ineligible to vote while in prison, on parole, or on probation. Voting rights are automatically restored upon completion of all supervised release. Ex-offenders should re-register to vote.

Illinois

Individuals in prison for a felony conviction are ineligible to vote. Voting rights are automatically restored upon release from prison. People on parole or probation can vote. Ex-offenders should re-register to vote.

Indiana

Individuals in prison for a felony conviction are ineligible to vote. Voting rights are automatically restored upon release from prison. People on parole or probation can vote. Ex-offenders should re-register to vote.

Iowa

The right to vote for individuals convicted of a felony depend on the date they completed their sentence. Everyone who completed their sentence before July 4th, 2005 – including parole and probation – can vote. People who completed their sentence after July 4th, 2005 can only vote if they  have first paid or are current on their all outstanding monetary obligations and then apply to have their voting rights restored through the governor.  For more information.

Kansas

Individuals convicted of a felony are ineligible to vote while in prison, on parole, or on probation. Voting rights are automatically restored upon completion of all supervised release. Ex-offenders should re-register to vote.

Kentucky

Kentucky’s constitution bars all individuals with past felony convictions from voting, unless the governor restores the right to vote.  In December 2019, newly-elected Govenor Beshear issued an executive order granting and restoring the vote to more than 140,000 residents who have completed sentences for nonviolent felonies. The policy will continue for all non-violent offenders who complete their sentences at least while he remains Governor. Contact the Secretary of State or your local election office for more information.

Louisiana

Individuals convicted of a felony are ineligible to vote while in prison, on parole, or on probation. You automaticaly regain the right to vote after the you have been free from prison for the last five consecutive years without another felony conviction. You must re-register to vote.

Maine

The right to vote is never taken away from individuals convicted of a felony, even while in prison.

Maryland

Individuals convicted of a felony are ineligible to vote while in prison but can register and vote upon release, even while on probation or parole (as of April 2016). Ex-offenders should re-register to vote.

Massachusetts

Individuals in prison for a felony conviction are ineligible to vote. Voting rights are automatically restored upon release from prison. People on parole or probation can vote. Ex-offenders should re-register to vote.

Michigan

Individuals in prison for a felony conviction are ineligible to vote. Voting rights are automatically restored upon release from prison. People on parole or probation can vote. Ex-offenders should re-register to vote.

Visit the Michigan Department of State’s website for more information.

Minnesota

Individuals convicted of a felony are ineligible to vote while in prison, on parole, or on probation. Voting rights are automatically restored upon completion of all supervised release. Ex-offenders should re-register to vote.

Mississippi

People convicted of one or more of a specific list of felony crimes are barred from voting. To regain the right to vote, individuals, after completion of their sentence, must go to their state representative and convince them to personally author a bill restoring the vote to that individual. Both houses of the legislature must then pass the bill. Re-enfranchisement can also be granted directly by the governor. People with felonies not on the list or anyone awaiting trial may register to vote.

Note: Individuals convicted of felonies in Mississippi remain eligible to vote for U.S. President in federal elections.

Missouri

Individuals convicted of a felony are ineligible to vote while in prison, on parole, or on probation. Voting rights are automatically restored upon completion of all supervised release. Ex-offenders should re-register to vote. Individuals who have been convicted of an election offense, whether a felony or misdemeanor, are not allowed to vote

Montana

Individuals in prison for a felony conviction are ineligible to vote. Voting rights are automatically restored upon release from prison. People on parole or probation can vote. Ex-offenders should re-register to vote.

Nebraska

Individuals convicted of a felony are ineligible to vote while in prison, on parole, or on probation. Voting rights are automatically restored two years after the completion of all supervised release (except if convicted of treason). Ex-offenders should re-register to vote. For more information.

Nevada

As of July 1, 2019, Nevada’s Governor signed a new law restoring all voting rights automatically upon release from prison. Any person on parole or probation can vote. Ex-offenders should re-register to vote.

New Hampshire

Individuals in prison for a felony conviction are ineligible to vote. Voting rights are automatically restored upon release from prison. People on parole or probation can vote. Ex-offenders should re-register to vote.

New Jersey

As of March 2020, the law changed to restore all voting rights to people with a felony or convicted of any crime upon release from prison for . People on parole or probation are now able to to register and vote.

New Mexico

Individuals convicted of a felony are ineligible to vote while in prison, on parole, or on probation. Voting rights are automatically restored upon completion of all supervised release. Ex-offenders should re-register to vote.

New York

Individuals convicted of a felony are ineligible to vote while in prison. On April 2018 New York Governor Andrew Cuomo issued Executive Order 181 to restore the right to vote to parolees, dependent upon a monthly review of records by the Governor’s Office. The right to vote is automatically restored for all persons upon release from prison, even for parolees as long as they do not violate the terms of their parole. If on parole, check your status here.

North Carolina

Individuals convicted of a felony are ineligible to vote while in prison, on parole, or on probation. Voting rights are automatically restored upon completion of all supervised release. Ex-offenders should re-register to vote.

North Dakota

Individuals in prison for a felony conviction are ineligible to vote. Voting rights are automatically restored upon release from prison. People on parole or probation can vote. Ex-offenders should re-register to vote.

Ohio

Individuals in prison for a felony conviction are ineligible to vote. Voting rights are automatically restored upon release from prison. People on parole or probation can vote. Ex-offenders should re-register to vote.

Oklahoma

Individuals convicted of a felony are ineligible to vote until the full term of your original sentence ends, including any parole and/or probation.  from the time of judgment and sentencing until the full sentence has expired. Once eligble, the person must re-register to have voting rights completely restored.

Oregon

Voting rights are automatically restored upon release from prison. People on parole or probation can vote. Ex-offenders should re-register to vote.

Pennsylvania

Voting rights are automatically restored upon release from prison. People on parole or probation can vote. Ex-offenders should re-register to vote.

Rhode Island

Voting rights are automatically restored upon release from prison. People on parole or probation can vote. Ex-offenders should re-register to vote.

South Carolina

Individuals convicted of a felony are ineligible to vote while in prison, on parole, or on probation. Voting rights are automatically restored upon completion of all supervised release. Ex-offenders should re-register to vote.

South Dakota

Individuals convicted of a felony are ineligible to vote while in prison, on probation, or on parole.  Ex-offenders should re-register to vote.

Tennessee

Individuals convicted of a felony are ineligible to vote while in prison, on parole, or on probation. Individuals convicted of a felony since 1981–except for some felonies such as murder, rape, treason and voter fraud–may apply to the Board of Probation and Parole to have their voting rights restored once their sentence is completed. People convicted of a felony between Jan. 15, 1973, and May 17, 1981, are eligible to register to vote regardless of the crime committed. People convicted before January 1973 are barred from voting only if convicted of a specific list of crimes listed on this fact sheet.

Texas

Individuals convicted of a felony are ineligible to vote while in prison, on parole, or on probation. Voting rights are automatically restored upon completion of all supervised release. Ex-offenders should re-register to vote.

Utah

Voting rights are automatically restored upon release from prison. People on parole or probation can vote. Ex-offenders should re-register to vote.

Vermont

The right to vote is never taken away from individuals convicted of a felony, even while in prison.

Virginia

Individuals convicted of a felony are ineligible to vote while in prison, on parole, or on probation. Non-violent felons (including the sale of drugs) will have their voting rights automatically restored upon release from prison but must fill out this online form. Those convicted of violent felonies, crimes against minors, and electoral offenses must wait three years before applying for a gubernatorial restoration of voting rights. Virginia is one of four states whose constitution permanently disenfranchises citizens with past felony convictions, but grants the state’s governor the authority to restore voting rights. The state’s former and current governor now issue individual restorations for all citizens who have completed their sentence, including probation and parole. Individuals can always check their status on the Secretary of Commonwealth’s website: www.commonwealth.virginia.gov/ror

Washington

Individuals convicted of a felony are ineligible to vote while in prison or on parole, or on probation. Voting rights are automatically restored upon completion of all supervised release. Ex-offenders should re-register to vote. However if you were convicted of a felony in another state or by a federal court, you can register and vote if you are not currently in prison for the same crime.

West Virginia

Individuals convicted of a felony are ineligible to vote while in prison, on parole, or on probation. Voting rights are automatically restored upon completion of all supervised release. Ex-offenders should re-register to vote.

Wisconsin

Individuals convicted of a felony are ineligible to vote while in prison, on parole, or on probation. Voting rights are automatically restored upon completion of all supervised release. Ex-offenders should re-register to vote.

Wyoming

Individuals convicted in Wyoming of a non-violent felony since January 2010 automatically have their rights restored after prison. Those convicted on a non-violent felony before 2010 or in another state can apply to the Wyoming Board of Parole to have their rights restored. All others must apply to the Governor for either a pardon or a restoration of rights after completing their sentence including probation and parole.